Prof. Eyal Regev
Bar - Ilan University
Land of Israel Studies
M.A. (direct Ph.D. program)
Bar - Ilan University
'The Sadducean Halakhah and the Sadducees' Influence on Social and Religious Life.' Supervisor: Prof. Joshua Schwartz (Hebrew).
Fulbright Scholarship, Center for Jewish Studies, Harvard University.
Fulbright Project: Cult, Ritual, and the Social Order in the Land of Israel during the Hasmonean and Herodian Periods.
Previous Positions in BIU
List of Publications
The Sadducees and their Halakhah: Religion and Society in the Second Temple Period, Yad Izhak ben Zvi 2005 (Hebrew).
Sectarianism in Qumran: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Religion and Society Series 45, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007.
The Land of Israel during the Second Temple, Mishnah and Talmud Periods (with Ze'ev Safrai), Jerusalem: Karta, 2011 (Hebrew).
The Hasmoneans: Ideology, Archaeology, Identity, Journal of Ancient Judaism Supplements 10, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2013.
The Temple in Early Christianity: Experiencing the Sacred, Anchor Yale Bible Reference Library, Yale University Press, 2019.
Social Archaeology of Late Second Temple Judaea: From Purity, Burial, and Art, to Qumran, Herod, and Masada, Routledge (forthcoming).
Articles in Hebrew
'Ritual Baths of Jewish Groups and Sects in the Second Temple Period’, Cathedra 79 (March 1996), pp. 3-21.
‘The Use of Stone Vessels at the End of the Second Temple Period’, in Y. Eshel (ed.), Judea and Samaria Research Studies, Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting, Kedumim-Ariel 2003, pp. 79-95.
'The Controversy Regarding the Eating of the Cereal Offering of the Well-Being Sacrifices and the Thanksgiving Cakes in 4QMMT, The Temple Scroll and the Scholion to Megillat Ta’anit’, Tarbiz 65 (April-June 1996), pp. 375-388.
'More on Ritual Baths of Jewish Groups and Sects: On Research Methods and Archaeological Evidence - A Reply to A. Grosberg’, Cathedra 83 (April 1997), pp. 169-176.
'The Background, Causes and Outcomes of the Emergence of the Priestly Houses of Phiabi and Boethos’, in: A. Faust & E. Baruch (eds.), New Studies on Jerusalem, Proceedings of the Third Conference, Ramat Gan 1997, pp. 43-53.
'The Guilt of Nob’s Priests According to Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum, Beit Mikra 152 (October-December 1997), pp. 53-66.
'The Temple Impurity and Qumran's "Foreign Affairs" in the Early Hasmonean Period’ Zion 64 (1999), pp. 133-156.
‘Why Did Aristobulus II and his Son Alexander Fortify Alexandrion-Sartaba?’ Jerusalem and Eretz Israel, ed. J. Schwartz et al., Tel Aviv 2000, pp. 119-132.
‘The Collection of Tithes by Sadducean Priests in the Provinces of the Land of Israel’, The Proceedings of the Twelfth World Congress for Jewish Studies, division b, Jewish History, Jerusalem 2000, pp. 11-19.
'Hannukkah, Succot and the days of Milluim in II Maccabees’, Beit Miqra 166 (2001), pp. 227-243.
‘Family Burial in Herodianic Jerusalem and Its Environs and the Social Organization of Immigrants and Sectarians’ Cathedra 106 (2002), pp. 35-60.
‘Josephus and the Halakhah of the Pharisees, Sadducees and Qumran’ Zion 67 (2002), pp. 401-435 (with David Nakman).
‘The Structure of the Family in Jerusalem in the Herodian Period according to the Archaeological Findings of Burial Cave’ in Y. Eshel (ed.), Judea and Samaria Research Studies, Proceedings of the 5th Annual Meeting, Kedumim-Ariel, pp. 97-116.
‘Jesus and the Moral Impurity’, The Proceedings of the 13th World Congress for Jewish Studies, 2003(www.jewish-studies.org.).
'On Blood, Impurity and Body Perception in the Halakhic Schools in the Second Temple and Talmudic Period’, AJS Review 27.1 (2003), pp. א-כב (Hebrew Section)
‘The Traditions about the Pharisees’ and Sadducees’ Authority in the Temple During the Early Roman Period’, Jerusalem and the Land of Israel 1 (2003), pp. 5-46.
‘A Kingdom of Priests or a Holy (Gentile) People: The Temple in Early Christian Life and Thought’, Cathedra 113 (2004), pp. 5-34.
‘Moshe Weinfeld Reconsidered: Towards the Typology of Holiness in the Priestly Schools and Deuteronomy’ Shenaton: a Journal for the Dtudy of the Bible and the Ancient Near East 14 (2004), pp. 51-74.
‘Different Halakhic Perceptions between The Qumran Sectarians and The Pharisees-Rabbis: Dynamic Holiness and Static Holiness’, Tarbiz 72.1-2 (2003), pp. 113-132.
'Temple Prayer as the Origin of the Fixed Prayer (On the Evolution of Prayer during the Period of the Second Temple)', Zion 70.1 (2005), pp. 5-30.
'Sacrifices of Righteousness: Visiting the Temple and Bringing Sacrifices as Religious Experience in Psalms', Tarbiz 73.3 (2004), pp. 365-386.
'The Ritual Baths Near the Temple Mount: What Were They Used For,' New Studies on Jerusalem 12 (2006), pp. 67-72
'Temple or Messiah: On The Trial of Jesus, the Temple and the Roman Policy', Cathedra 119 (2006), pp. 13-36.
"Art, Symbolism and Self-Identity: The Meaning and Function of the Decorations on Jewish Ossuaries and 'Southern' Oil Lamps," Jerusalem and Eretz-Israel 6 (2008), pp. 33-57
"Jewish Ossuaries and Social Individualism in Jerusalem in the Late Second Temple Period," in E. Baruch et al. (eds.), New Studies in Jerusalem 17 (2011), pp. 239-252 (Hebrew).
"The Hasmoneans' Self-Identity as Religious Leaders", Zion 77.1, pp. 5-30 (Hebrew).
"Heber ha-yehudim and the Political Ideology of the Hasmoneans," Tarbiz 80.3 (2012), pp. 329-346.
"Herod's True Faces: Ritual Baths, Society and Politics in Herod's Palaces," New Studies on Jerusalem 18 (2012), pp. 82-101.
"How Many Sects Were in the Qumran Movement? On the Differences between the yahad, the Damascus Covenant, the Essenes, and Kh. Qumran," Cathedra 148 (2013), pp, 7-40.
"Society in Jerusalem before the First Revolt against Rome: Groups, Parties and Social Phenomena," New Studies in Jerusalem (2013), pp. 179-199.
"Jesus, Jerusalem and the Temple: Historical Geography and Religious Concepts in Early Christianity," The History of Jerusalem: The Second Temple Period, ed. R. Reich and J. Schwartz, Yad ben Zvi, (with J. Schwartz) (forthcoming).
"Names and Self-Designations in Qumran: The Theology of Self-Identity," Beit Miqra 61.1 (2016): 99-125 (with Ravit Ferver Rotberg).
"How did the Hasmoneans Build Jewish Collective Identity?", New Studies on Jerusalem 22: (2017) 207-237.
"Jerusalem in the Scrolls of Qumran," in A. Faust et al. (eds.), Jerusalem: From Its Beginning to the Ottoman Conquest, Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies, Ramat Gan 2017, pp. 139-143
"Jerusalem in the New Testament," in A. Faust et al. (eds.), Jerusalem: From Its Beginning to the Ottoman Conquest, Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies, Ramat Gan 2017, pp. 145-158 (with J. Schwartz).
"Almost a Temple: The Community-Temple Identification in Qumran and the New Testament, their Differences and Relationships," Megilot 13 (2017): 197-229.
"The Shadow of the Sadducees," Jerusalem and the Land of Israel, Simon Dar Volume, 10-11 (2018): 273-289.
"Luke's Judaism: The Temple as Shaping Early Christian Identity," Zion 83.1 (2018): 5-32.
"Law and Sacrifices in the Letter to the Hebrews: Transforming Judaism," Zion (forthcoming).
"Jesus, Jerusalem and the Temple: Geographical History and Religious Perceptions in Early Christianity," in R. Reich and J. Schwartz (eds.), The History of Jerusalem: The Second Temple Period, Yad ben-Zvi, (with Joshua Schwartz), (Forthcoming).
Articles in English
"How Did the Temple Mount Fall to Pompey", Journal of Jewish Studies 48 (1997), pp. 276-289.
"The Sectarian Controversies about the Cereal Offerings", Dead Sea Discoveries 5.1 (1998) pp. 33-56.
"Josephus on Gibeah: Versions of a Toponym", Jewish Quarterly Review 89 (1999), pp. 351-359.
"Non-priestly Purity and Its Religious Perspectives According to Historical Sources and Archeological Findings", in: M.J.H.M. Poorthuis and J. Schwartz (eds.), Purity and Holiness: The Heritage of Leviticus (Jewish and Christian Perspectives Series, 2), Leiden, E.J. Brill, 2000, pp. 223-244.
"Yose ben Yoezer and the Qumran Sectarians on Purity Laws: Agreement and Controversy", in: J.M. Baumgarten et al. (eds.), The Damascus Document: A Centennial Discovery. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, 4-8 February, 1998, E.J. Brill, Leiden 2000, pp. 95-107.
"Pure Individualism: The Idea of Non-Priestly Purity in Ancient Judaism", Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 31 (2000), pp. 176-202.
"The Individualistic Meaning of Jewish Ossuaries: A Socio-Anthropological Perspective on Burial Practice", Palestine Exploration Quarterly 133.1 (2001), pp. 39-49.
"Priestly Dynamic Holiness and Deuteronomistic Static Holiness", Vetus Testamentum 51 (2001), pp. 243-261.
"The Two Sins of Nob: Biblical Interpretation, an Anti-Priestly Polemic, and a Geographical Error in Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum", Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrpha 12.1 (2001), pp. 85-104.
"Abominated Temple and A Holy Community: The Formation of the concepts of Purity and Impurity in Qumran", Dead Sea Discoveries 10.2 (2003), pp. 243-278.
“The yahad and the Damascus Covenant: Structure, Organization and Relationship” Revue de Qumran 21.2 (2003), pp. 233-262.
“Comparing Sectarian Practice and Organization: The Qumran Sect in Light of the Regulations of the Shakers, Hutterites, Mennonites and Amish”, Numen 51 (2004), pp. 146-181.
"Family Burial, Family Structure, and the Urbanization of Herodian Jerusalem", Palestine Exploration Quarterly 136.2 (2004), pp. 109-131.
“Moral Impurity and the Temple in Early Christianity in Light of Qumranic Ideology and Ancient Greek Practice” Harvard Theological Review 79.4 (2004), pp. 283-311.
"Were the Priests all the Same? Qumranic Halakhah in Comparison with Sadducean Halakhah", Dead Sea Discoveries 12.2 (2005), pp. 158-188.
"The Ritual Baths Near the Temple Mount and the Extra-Purification Before Entering the Temple Courts" Israel Exploration Journal 55.2 (2005), pp. 194-204.
“Reconstructing Qumranic and Rabbinic Worldviews: Dynamic Holiness vs. Static Holiness”, in Steven D. Fraade, Aharon Shemesh, and Ruth A. Clements (eds.), Rabbinical Perspectives: Rabbinic Literature and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, January 7-9, 2003. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah. Leiden: Brill, 2005, pp. 87-112.
"Archaeology and the Mishna’s Halakhic Tradition: The Case of Stone Vessels and Ritual Baths" in Alan Avery-Peck and Jacob Neusner (eds.), The Mishnah in Contemporary Perspective, Part Two (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 136-152.
“Temple and Righteousness in Qumran and Early Christianity: Tracing the Social Differences between the Two Movements”, in Daniel R. Schwartz and Ruth A. Clements (eds.), Text, Thought, and Practice in Qumran and Early Christianity. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, January 11-13, 2004. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah. (Leiden: Brill 2006), pp. 87-112.
"Atonement and Sectarianism in Qumran: Defining A Sectarian World-View in Moral and Halakhic Systems", in David Chalcraft (ed.), Sectarianism in Early Judaism, Equinox: London 2007, pp. 180-204.
"From Enoch to John the Essene: An Analysis of Sects Development in 1 Enoch, Jubilees and the Essenes", in: E. Chazon, B. Haplern-Amaru, and R. Clements (eds.), New Perspectives on Old Texts, STDJ series, Leiden: Brill 2010, pp. 67-93.
"Ancient Jewish Style: Why were Ossuaries and Southern Oil Lamps Decorated?", Levant 38 (2006), pp. 171-186.
"The Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Sacred: Meaning and Ideology in the Halakhic Controversies between the Sadducees and Pharisees" Review of Rabbinic Judaism 9 (2006), pp. 126-140.
"The Temple Mount Ritual Baths and the Temple Cult: A Reply to Yonatan Adler," New Studies on Jerusalem 13 (2007), pp, 9*-16*.
"Chercher les femmes: Were the yahad Celibates?" Dead Sea Discoveries 15.2 (2008), pp. 253-284.
"Hanukkah and the Temple of the Maccabees: Ritual and Ideology from Judas Maccabeus to Simon", Jewish Studies Quarterly 15.2 (2008), pp. 87-114.
"Jubilees, Qumran, and the Essenes," in G. Boccaccini and G. Ibba (eds.), Enoch and the Mosaic Torah: The Evidence of Jubilees, Grand Rapids and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2009, pp. 426-440.
"Access Analysis of Kh. Qumran: Reading Spatial Organization and Social Boundaries," Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 355 (2009): 85-99.
"The Archaeology of Sectarianism: Ritual, Resistance and Hierarchy in Kh. Qumran," Revue de Qumran 24/94 (2009): 175-214.
"Wealth and Sectarianism: Comparing Qumranic and Early Christian Social Approaches," in F. Garcia Martinez (ed,), Echoes from the Caves: Qumran and the New Testament (STDJ 85), Leiden: Brill 2009, pp. 211-230.
"Herod's Jewish Ideology Facing Romanization: On Intermarriage, Ritual Baths and Speeches," Jewish Quarterly Review 100.2 (2010): 197-222.
"Temple Concerns and High Priestly Persecutions from Peter to James: Narrative and History," New Testament Studies 56.1 (2010): 64-89.
"Sadducees", New Interpreters Bible Dictionary (2009), 5.32-36.
"The Temple in Mark: A Case Study about the Early Christian Attitude toward the Temple," in D. Jaffé (ed.), Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. Text and Context, Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity Series 74, Leiden; Brill 2010, pp. 139-159.
"Between Two Sects: Differentiating the Yahad and the Damascus Covenant," in C. Hempel (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls: Text and Context, STDJ 90, Leiden: Brill 2010, pp. 431-449.
Josephus, the Temple, and the Jewish War," in J. Pastor, P. Stern, and M. Mor (eds.), Flavius Josephus: Interpretation and History, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 146, Brill 2011, pp. 279-293.
"From Qumran to Alexandria and Rome: Qumranic Halakhah in Josephus and Philo," in A.I. Baumgarten, H. Eshel, R. Katzoff, and S. Tzoref (eds.), Halakha in Light of Epigraphy, (Journal for Ancient Judaism Supplement 3; Götingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2011, pp. 43-63.
"Royal Ideology in the Hasmonaean Palaces in Jericho," Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 363 (2011), pp. 45-72.
"Were the Early Christians Sectarians," Journal of Biblical Literature 130.4 (2011), pp. 771–793.
"What Kind of Sect Was The Yaḥad? A Comparative Approach," The Dead Sea scrolls and Contemporary Culture: Proceedings of the International conference Held at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (July 6-8, 2008), edited by Adolfo D. Roitman, Lawrence H. Schiffman, and Shani Tzoref. Leiden: Brill, 2011, pp.41-58.
"Inside Herod's Courts: Social Relations and Royal Ideology in the Herodian Palaces," Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 43 (2012), pp. 180-214.
"The Trial of Jesus and the Temple: Sadducean and Roman Perspectives," in B. Chilton, A. Donne, and J. Neusner (eds.), Soundings in the Religion of Jesus, Minneapolis: Fortress, 2012, pp. 97-107, 218-224.
"The Gradual Conversion of Gentiles in Acts and Luke's Paradox of the Gentile Mission," in F. Avemarie and K-.P. Adam (eds.), Law and Narrative in the Bible and in Neighbouring Ancient Cultures, Tübingen Mohr-Siebeck, 2012, pp. 349-371.
"Lennon and Jesus: Secularization and the Transformation of Religion," Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 41.4 (2012):1-30.
"The Temple Cult, Romanization, and the Rebels: The Roman Setting for the Rebels' Religious Ideology," Journal of Ancient Judaism 5 (2014): 40-60.
"Flourishing before the Crisis: Mapping Judaean Society in the First Century CE," Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries: How to Write Their History, ed. P. Tomson and J. Schwartz, CRINT 13 Brill, 2014, pp. 52-69.
"The High-Priestly Coins of the Hasmoneans in Comparison to their Hellenistic Counterparts," Israel Numismatic Journal 18 (2011-14): 51-58.
"Sin, Atonement and Israelite Identity in the Words of the Luminaries in Relation to 1 Enoch's Animal Apocalypse," Hebrew Union College Annual 84-85 (2013-14): 1-24.
"Prayer Within and Without the Temple from Ancient Judaism to Early Christianity," Henoch: Historical and Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Judaism and Christianity 36 (2014): 118-138.
"De joodse wet en gebruiken in de Handelingen der Apostelen: De vorming van de vroegchristelijke identiteit," Soteria 32.3 (2015): 16-24 (Dutch).
"Early Christianity in Light of New Religious Movements," Numen 63 (2016): 483–510.
"Washing, Repentance and Atonement in Early Christian Baptism and Qumranic Purification Liturgies," Journal for the Jesus Movement in its Jewish Setting 3 (2016): 33-60.
"Jewish Legal Practice and Piety in the Acts of the Apostles: Apologetics or Identity Marker?," in Religious Stories in Transformation: Conflict, Revision and Reception, eds. A. Hautman et al., Jewish and Christian Perspectives series, Leiden: Brill 2016, pp. 126-143.
"The Hellenization of the Hasmoneans Revisited: The Archaeological Evidence," Advances in Anthropology 2017, 7: 175-196.
"What Has Been Changed in the Law of Hebrews?" Biblica 98.4 (2017): 582-599.
"The Ram and Qumran: The Eschatological Character of the Ram in the Animal Apocalypse (1 En 90:10-13)," The Apocalypse and the Sage: Assessing the Contribution of John J. Collins to the Study of Apocalypticism, JSJ Supplement series eds. S.W. Crawford and C. Wassen (Leiden: Brill 2018), 181-195.
"The Hasmonean Kings: Jewish or Hellenistic? Biblical Archaeology Review 44.6 (2018) 45-51.
"Community as Temple: Revisiting Cultic Metaphors in Qumran and the New Testament," Bulletin for Biblical Research (in press).
"The King's Baths: Jewish, Greek and Roman Baths in Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces," Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (in press).
Judean Desert Scrolls
|credits equal 2 Annual course hours||Annual||on-line|
Professor, Department of Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology Bar-Ilan University
Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls early Christianity; Social and religious history and social archaeology of the Second Temple period;
The Hasmoneans and Herod harisees, Sadducees and other religious groups social scientific study of Second Temple Jewish society